The Periodic Table of Elements

alkali metal
alkaline earth metal
transition metal
post transition metal
metalloid
polyatomic nonmetal
diatomic nonmetal
noble gas
lanthanide
actinide

H

Hydrogen

1

He

Helium

2

Li

Lithium

3

Be

Beryllium

4

B

Boron

5

C

Carbon

6

N

Nitrogen

7

O

Oxygen

8

F

Fluorine

9

Ne

Neon

10

Na

Sodium

11

Mg

Magnesium

12

Al

Aluminium

13

Si

Silicon

14

P

Phosphorus

15

S

Sulfur

16

Cl

Chlorine

17

Ar

Argon

18

K

Potassium

19

Ca

Calcium

20

Sc

Scandium

21

Ti

Titanium

22

V

Vanadium

23

Cr

Chromium

24

Mn

Manganese

25

Fe

Iron

26

Co

Cobalt

27

Ni

Nickel

28

Cu

Copper

29

Zn

Zinc

30

Ga

Gallium

31

Ge

Germanium

32

As

Arsenic

33

Se

Selenium

34

Br

Bromine

35

Kr

Krypton

36

Rb

Rubidium

37

Sr

Strontium

38

Y

Yttrium

39

Zr

Zirconium

40

Nb

Niobium

41

Mo

Molybdenum

42

Tc

Technetium

43

Ru

Ruthenium

44

Rh

Rhodium

45

Pd

Palladium

46

Ag

Silver

47

Cd

Cadmium

48

In

Indium

49

Sn

Tin

50

Sb

Antimony

51

Te

Tellurium

52

I

Iodine

53

Xe

Xenon

54

Cs

Caesium

55

Ba

Barium

56

Hf

Hafnium

72

Ta

Tantalum

73

W

Tungsten

74

Re

Rhenium

75

Os

Osmium

76

Ir

Iridium

77

Pt

Platinum

78

Au

Gold

79

Hg

Mercury

80

Tl

Thallium

81

Pb

Lead

82

Bi

Bismuth

83

Po

Polonium

84

At

Astatine

85

Rn

Radon

86

Fr

Francium

87

Ra

Radium

88

Rf

Rutherfordium

104

Db

Dubnium

105

Sg

Seaborgium

106

Bh

Bohrium

107

Hs

Hassium

108

Mt

Meitnerium

109

Ds

Darmstadtium

110

Rg

Roentgenium

111

Cn

Copernicium

112

Nh

Nihonium

113

Fl

Flerovium

114

Mc

Moscovium

115

Lv

Livermorium

116

Ts

Tennessine

117

Og

Oganesson

118

La

Lanthanum

57

Ce

Cerium

58

Pr

Praseodymium

59

Nd

Neodymium

60

Pm

Promethium

61

Sm

Samarium

62

Eu

Europium

63

Gd

Gadolinium

64

Tb

Terbium

65

Dy

Dysprosium

66

Ho

Holmium

67

Er

Erbium

68

Tm

Thulium

69

Yb

Ytterbium

70

Lu

Lutetium

71

Ac

Actinium

89

Th

Thorium

90

Pa

Protactinium

91

U

Uranium

92

Np

Neptunium

93

Pu

Plutonium

94

Am

Americium

95

Cm

Curium

96

Bk

Berkelium

97

Cf

Californium

98

Es

Einsteinium

99

Fm

Fermium

100

Md

Mendelevium

101

No

Nobelium

102

Lr

Lawrencium

103
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Hydrogen

Category
diatomic nonmetal
Appearance
colorless gas
Summary
With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.
Discovered by
Henry Cavendish
Melting point
13.99 K
Boiling point
20.271 K
Density
0.08988 g/cm3
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Helium

Category
noble gas
Appearance
colorless gas, exhibiting a red-orange glow when placed in a high-voltage electric field
Summary
It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas that heads the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling and melting points are the lowest among all the elements.
Discovered by
Pierre Janssen
Melting point
0.95 K
Boiling point
4.222 K
Density
0.1786 g/cm3
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Lithium

Category
alkali metal
Appearance
silvery-white
Summary
It is a soft, silver-white metal belonging to the alkali metal group of chemical elements. Under standard conditions it is the lightest metal and the least dense solid element.
Discovered by
Johan August Arfwedson
Melting point
453.65 K
Boiling point
1603 K
Density
0.534 g/cm3
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Beryllium

Category
alkaline earth metal
Appearance
white-gray metallic
Summary
It is created through stellar nucleosynthesis and is a relatively rare element in the universe. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals.
Discovered by
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin
Melting point
1560 K
Boiling point
2742 K
Density
1.85 g/cm3
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Boron

Category
metalloid
Appearance
black-brown
Summary
Produced entirely by cosmic ray spallation and supernovae and not by stellar nucleosynthesis, it is a low-abundance element in both the Solar system and the Earth's crust. Boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals.
Discovered by
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
Melting point
2349 K
Boiling point
4200 K
Density
2.08 g/cm3
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Carbon

Category
polyatomic nonmetal
Appearance
None
Summary
On the periodic table, it is the first (row 2) of six elements in column (group) 14, which have in common the composition of their outer electron shell. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds.
Discovered by
Ancient Egypt
Melting point
None K
Boiling point
None K
Density
1.821 g/cm3
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Nitrogen

Category
diatomic nonmetal
Appearance
colorless gas, liquid or solid
Summary
It is the lightest pnictogen and at room temperature, it is a transparent, odorless diatomic gas. Nitrogen is a common element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System.
Discovered by
Daniel Rutherford
Melting point
63.15 K
Boiling point
77.355 K
Density
1.251 g/cm3
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Oxygen

Category
diatomic nonmetal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetal and oxidizing agent that readily forms compounds (notably oxides) with most elements. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.
Discovered by
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Melting point
54.36 K
Boiling point
90.188 K
Density
1.429 g/cm3
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Fluorine

Category
diatomic nonmetal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive:almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine.
Discovered by
André-Marie Ampère
Melting point
53.48 K
Boiling point
85.03 K
Density
1.696 g/cm3
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Neon

Category
noble gas
Appearance
colorless gas exhibiting an orange-red glow when placed in a high voltage electric field
Summary
It is in group 18 (noble gases) of the periodic table. Neon is a colorless, odorless, inert monatomic gas under standard conditions, with about two-thirds the density of air.
Discovered by
Morris Travers
Melting point
24.56 K
Boiling point
27.104 K
Density
0.9002 g/cm3
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Sodium

Category
alkali metal
Appearance
silvery white metallic
Summary
It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal. In the Periodic table it is in column 1 (alkali metals), and shares with the other six elements in that column that it has a single electron in its outer shell, which it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom - a cation.
Discovered by
Humphry Davy
Melting point
370.944 K
Boiling point
1156.09 K
Density
0.968 g/cm3
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Magnesium

Category
alkaline earth metal
Appearance
shiny grey solid
Summary
It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (Group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table:they each have the same electron configuration in their outer electron shell producing a similar crystal structure. Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe.
Discovered by
Joseph Black
Melting point
923 K
Boiling point
1363 K
Density
1.738 g/cm3
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Aluminium

Category
post-transition metal
Appearance
silvery gray metallic
Summary
It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust.
Discovered by
None
Melting point
933.47 K
Boiling point
2743 K
Density
2.7 g/cm3
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Silicon

Category
metalloid
Appearance
crystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces
Summary
It is a tetravalent metalloid, more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. Controversy about silicon's character dates to its discovery.
Discovered by
Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Melting point
1687 K
Boiling point
3538 K
Density
2.329 g/cm3
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Phosphorus

Category
polyatomic nonmetal
Appearance
colourless, waxy white, yellow, scarlet, red, violet, black
Summary
As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. Instead phosphorus-containing minerals are almost always present in their maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks.
Discovered by
Hennig Brand
Melting point
None K
Boiling point
None K
Density
None g/cm3
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Sulfur

Category
polyatomic nonmetal
Appearance
lemon yellow sintered microcrystals
Summary
It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8.
Discovered by
Ancient china
Melting point
388.36 K
Boiling point
717.8 K
Density
2.07 g/cm3
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Chlorine

Category
diatomic nonmetal
Appearance
pale yellow-green gas
Summary
It also has a relative atomic mass of 35.5. Chlorine is in the halogen group (17) and is the second lightest halogen following fluorine.
Discovered by
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Melting point
171.6 K
Boiling point
239.11 K
Density
3.2 g/cm3
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Argon

Category
noble gas
Appearance
colorless gas exhibiting a lilac/violet glow when placed in a high voltage electric field
Summary
It is in group 18 of the periodic table and is a noble gas. Argon is the third most common gas in the Earth's atmosphere, at 0.934% (9,340 ppmv), making it over twice as abundant as the next most common atmospheric gas, water vapor (which averages about 4000 ppmv, but varies greatly), and 23 times as abundant as the next most common non-condensing atmospheric gas, carbon dioxide (400 ppmv), and more than 500 times as abundant as the next most common noble gas, neon (18 ppmv).
Discovered by
Lord Rayleigh
Melting point
83.81 K
Boiling point
87.302 K
Density
1.784 g/cm3
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Potassium

Category
alkali metal
Appearance
silvery gray
Summary
It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name is derived. In the Periodic table, potassium is one of seven elements in column (group) 1 (alkali metals):they all have a single valence electron in their outer electron shell, which they readily give up to create an atom with a positive charge - a cation, and combine with anions to form salts.
Discovered by
Humphry Davy
Melting point
336.7 K
Boiling point
1032 K
Density
0.862 g/cm3
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Calcium

Category
alkaline earth metal
Appearance
None
Summary
Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. The ion Ca2+ is also the fifth-most-abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfate.
Discovered by
Humphry Davy
Melting point
1115 K
Boiling point
1757 K
Density
1.55 g/cm3
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Scandium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
A silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanoids. It was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia.
Discovered by
Lars Fredrik Nilson
Melting point
1814 K
Boiling point
3109 K
Density
2.985 g/cm3
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Titanium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery grey-white metallic
Summary
It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density and high strength. It is highly resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia and chlorine.
Discovered by
William Gregor
Melting point
1941 K
Boiling point
3560 K
Density
4.506 g/cm3
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Vanadium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
blue-silver-grey metal
Summary
It is a hard, silvery grey, ductile and malleable transition metal. The element is found only in chemically combined form in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation.
Discovered by
Andrés Manuel del Río
Melting point
2183 K
Boiling point
3680 K
Density
6.0 g/cm3
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Chromium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery metallic
Summary
It is the first element in Group 6. It is a steely-gray, lustrous, hard and brittle metal which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point.
Discovered by
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin
Melting point
2180 K
Boiling point
2944 K
Density
7.19 g/cm3
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Manganese

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery metallic
Summary
It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in combination with iron, and in many minerals. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.
Discovered by
Torbern Olof Bergman
Melting point
1519 K
Boiling point
2334 K
Density
7.21 g/cm3
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Iron

Category
transition metal
Appearance
lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge
Summary
It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core.
Discovered by
5000 BC
Melting point
1811 K
Boiling point
3134 K
Density
7.874 g/cm3
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Cobalt

Category
transition metal
Appearance
hard lustrous gray metal
Summary
Like nickel, cobalt in the Earth's crust is found only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal.
Discovered by
Georg Brandt
Melting point
1768 K
Boiling point
3200 K
Density
8.9 g/cm3
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Nickel

Category
transition metal
Appearance
lustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge
Summary
It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile.
Discovered by
Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
Melting point
1728 K
Boiling point
3003 K
Density
8.908 g/cm3
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Copper

Category
transition metal
Appearance
red-orange metallic luster
Summary
It is a soft, malleable and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color.
Discovered by
Middle East
Melting point
1357.77 K
Boiling point
2835 K
Density
8.96 g/cm3
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Zinc

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silver-gray
Summary
It is the first element of group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium:its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2.
Discovered by
India
Melting point
692.68 K
Boiling point
1180 K
Density
7.14 g/cm3
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Gallium

Category
post-transition metal
Appearance
silver-white
Summary
Elemental gallium does not occur in free form in nature, but as the gallium(III) compounds that are in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Gallium is a soft, silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures, and melts at 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly above room temperature).
Discovered by
Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Melting point
302.9146 K
Boiling point
2673 K
Density
5.91 g/cm3
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Germanium

Category
metalloid
Appearance
grayish-white
Summary
It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, with an appearance most similar to elemental silicon.
Discovered by
Clemens Winkler
Melting point
1211.4 K
Boiling point
3106 K
Density
5.323 g/cm3
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Arsenic

Category
metalloid
Appearance
metallic grey
Summary
Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in conjunction with sulfur and metals, and also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid.
Discovered by
Bronze Age
Melting point
None K
Boiling point
None K
Density
5.727 g/cm3
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Selenium

Category
polyatomic nonmetal
Appearance
black, red, and gray (not pictured) allotropes
Summary
It is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between those of its periodic table column-adjacent chalcogen elements sulfur and tellurium. It rarely occurs in its elemental state in nature, or as pure ore compounds.
Discovered by
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Melting point
494 K
Boiling point
958 K
Density
4.81 g/cm3
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Bromine

Category
diatomic nonmetal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is a halogen. The element was isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Jerome Balard, in 1825–1826.
Discovered by
Antoine Jérôme Balard
Melting point
265.8 K
Boiling point
332.0 K
Density
23.1028 g/cm3
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Krypton

Category
noble gas
Appearance
colorless gas, exhibiting a whitish glow in a high electric field
Summary
It is a member of group 18 (noble gases) elements. A colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere, is isolated by fractionally distilling liquefied air, and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps.
Discovered by
William Ramsay
Melting point
115.78 K
Boiling point
119.93 K
Density
3.749 g/cm3
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Rubidium

Category
alkali metal
Appearance
grey white
Summary
Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group, with an atomic mass of 85.4678. Elemental rubidium is highly reactive, with properties similar to those of other alkali metals, such as very rapid oxidation in air.
Discovered by
Robert Bunsen
Melting point
312.45 K
Boiling point
961 K
Density
1.532 g/cm3
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Strontium

Category
alkaline earth metal
Appearance
None
Summary
An alkaline earth metal, strontium is a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically. The metal turns yellow when it is exposed to air.
Discovered by
William Cruickshank (chemist)
Melting point
1050 K
Boiling point
1650 K
Density
2.64 g/cm3
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Yttrium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and it has often been classified as a "rare earth element". Yttrium is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element.
Discovered by
Johan Gadolin
Melting point
1799 K
Boiling point
3203 K
Density
4.472 g/cm3
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Zirconium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
The name of zirconium is taken from the name of the mineral zircon, the most important source of zirconium. The word zircon comes from the Persian word zargun زرگون, meaning "gold-colored".
Discovered by
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Melting point
2128 K
Boiling point
4650 K
Density
6.52 g/cm3
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Niobium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
gray metallic, bluish when oxidized
Summary
It is a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, which is often found in the pyrochlore mineral, the main commercial source for niobium, and columbite. The name comes from Greek mythology:Niobe, daughter of Tantalus since it is so similar to tantalum.
Discovered by
Charles Hatchett
Melting point
2750 K
Boiling point
5017 K
Density
8.57 g/cm3
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Molybdenum

Category
transition metal
Appearance
gray metallic
Summary
The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores. Molybdenum minerals have been known throughout history, but the element was discovered (in the sense of differentiating it as a new entity from the mineral salts of other metals) in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele.
Discovered by
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Melting point
2896 K
Boiling point
4912 K
Density
10.28 g/cm3
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Technetium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
shiny gray metal
Summary
It is the element with the lowest atomic number in the periodic table that has no stable isotopes:every form of it is radioactive. Nearly all technetium is produced synthetically, and only minute amounts are found in nature.
Discovered by
Emilio Segrè
Melting point
2430 K
Boiling point
4538 K
Density
11 g/cm3
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Ruthenium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery white metallic
Summary
It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals.
Discovered by
Karl Ernst Claus
Melting point
2607 K
Boiling point
4423 K
Density
12.45 g/cm3
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Rhodium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery white metallic
Summary
It is a rare, silvery-white, hard, and chemically inert transition metal. It is a member of the platinum group.
Discovered by
William Hyde Wollaston
Melting point
2237 K
Boiling point
3968 K
Density
12.41 g/cm3
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Palladium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. He named it after the asteroid Pallas, which was itself named after the epithet of the Greek goddess Athena, acquired by her when she slew Pallas.
Discovered by
William Hyde Wollaston
Melting point
1828.05 K
Boiling point
3236 K
Density
12.023 g/cm3
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Silver

Category
transition metal
Appearance
lustrous white metal
Summary
A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it possesses the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and reflectivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.
Discovered by
unknown, before 5000 BC
Melting point
1234.93 K
Boiling point
2435 K
Density
10.49 g/cm3
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Cadmium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery bluish-gray metallic
Summary
This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it prefers oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds and like mercury it shows a low melting point compared to transition metals.
Discovered by
Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann
Melting point
594.22 K
Boiling point
1040 K
Density
8.65 g/cm3
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Indium

Category
post-transition metal
Appearance
silvery lustrous gray
Summary
It is a post-transition metallic element that is rare in Earth's crust. The metal is very soft, malleable and easily fusible, with a melting point higher than sodium, but lower than lithium or tin.
Discovered by
Ferdinand Reich
Melting point
429.7485 K
Boiling point
2345 K
Density
7.31 g/cm3
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Tin

Category
post-transition metal
Appearance
silvery-white (beta, β) or gray (alpha, α)
Summary
It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both neighboring group-14 elements, germanium and lead, and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4.
Discovered by
unknown, before 3500 BC
Melting point
505.08 K
Boiling point
2875 K
Density
7.365 g/cm3
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Antimony

Category
metalloid
Appearance
silvery lustrous gray
Summary
A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were used for cosmetics; metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery.
Discovered by
unknown, before 3000 BC
Melting point
903.78 K
Boiling point
1908 K
Density
6.697 g/cm3
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Tellurium

Category
metalloid
Appearance
None
Summary
It is a brittle, mildly toxic, rare, silver-white metalloid. Tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur.
Discovered by
Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein
Melting point
722.66 K
Boiling point
1261 K
Density
6.24 g/cm3
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Iodine

Category
diatomic nonmetal
Appearance
lustrous metallic gray, violet as a gas
Summary
The name is from Greek ἰοειδής ioeidēs, meaning violet or purple, due to the color of iodine vapor. Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in nutrition, and industrially in the production of acetic acid and certain polymers.
Discovered by
Bernard Courtois
Melting point
386.85 K
Boiling point
457.4 K
Density
4.933 g/cm3
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Xenon

Category
noble gas
Appearance
colorless gas, exhibiting a blue glow when placed in a high voltage electric field
Summary
It is a colorless, dense, odorless noble gas, that occurs in the Earth's atmosphere in trace amounts. Although generally unreactive, xenon can undergo a few chemical reactions such as the formation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, the first noble gas compound to be synthesized.
Discovered by
William Ramsay
Melting point
161.4 K
Boiling point
165.051 K
Density
5.894 g/cm3
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Caesium

Category
alkali metal
Appearance
silvery gold
Summary
It is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28 °C (82 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. Caesium is an alkali metal and has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium.
Discovered by
Robert Bunsen
Melting point
301.7 K
Boiling point
944 K
Density
1.93 g/cm3
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Barium

Category
alkaline earth metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is the fifth element in Group 2, a soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal. Because of its high chemical reactivity barium is never found in nature as a free element.
Discovered by
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Melting point
1000 K
Boiling point
2118 K
Density
3.51 g/cm3
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Hafnium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
steel gray
Summary
A lustrous, silvery gray, tetravalent transition metal, hafnium chemically resembles zirconium and is found in zirconium minerals. Its existence was predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, though it was not identified until 1923, making it the penultimate stable element to be discovered (rhenium was identified two years later).
Discovered by
Dirk Coster
Melting point
2506 K
Boiling point
4876 K
Density
13.31 g/cm3
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Tantalum

Category
transition metal
Appearance
gray blue
Summary
Previously known as tantalium, its name comes from Tantalus, an antihero from Greek mythology. Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant.
Discovered by
Anders Gustaf Ekeberg
Melting point
3290 K
Boiling point
5731 K
Density
16.69 g/cm3
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Tungsten

Category
transition metal
Appearance
grayish white, lustrous
Summary
The word tungsten comes from the Swedish language tung sten, which directly translates to heavy stone. Its name in Swedish is volfram, however, in order to distinguish it from scheelite, which in Swedish is alternatively named tungsten.
Discovered by
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Melting point
3695 K
Boiling point
6203 K
Density
19.25 g/cm3
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Rhenium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery-grayish
Summary
It is a silvery-white, heavy, third-row transition metal in group 7 of the periodic table. With an estimated average concentration of 1 part per billion (ppb), rhenium is one of the rarest elements in the Earth's crust.
Discovered by
Masataka Ogawa
Melting point
3459 K
Boiling point
5869 K
Density
21.02 g/cm3
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Osmium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery, blue cast
Summary
It is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores. Osmium is the densest naturally occurring element, with a density of 22.59 g/cm3.
Discovered by
Smithson Tennant
Melting point
3306 K
Boiling point
5285 K
Density
22.59 g/cm3
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Iridium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
A very hard, brittle, silvery-white transition metal of the platinum group, iridium is generally credited with being the second densest element (after osmium) based on measured density, although calculations involving the space lattices of the elements show that iridium is denser. It is also the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C. Although only certain molten salts and halogens are corrosive to solid iridium, finely divided iridium dust is much more reactive and can be flammable.
Discovered by
Smithson Tennant
Melting point
2719 K
Boiling point
4403 K
Density
22.56 g/cm3
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Platinum

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, gray-white transition metal. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platina, which is literally translated into "little silver".
Discovered by
Antonio de Ulloa
Melting point
2041.4 K
Boiling point
4098 K
Density
21.45 g/cm3
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Gold

Category
transition metal
Appearance
metallic yellow
Summary
In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element.
Discovered by
Middle East
Melting point
1337.33 K
Boiling point
3243 K
Density
19.3 g/cm3
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Mercury

Category
transition metal
Appearance
silvery
Summary
It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum (/haɪˈdrɑːrdʒərəm/). A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is bromine, though metals such as caesium, gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature.
Discovered by
unknown, before 2000 BCE
Melting point
234.321 K
Boiling point
629.88 K
Density
13.534 g/cm3
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Thallium

Category
post-transition metal
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
This soft gray post-transition metal is not found free in nature. When isolated, it resembles tin, but discolors when exposed to air.
Discovered by
William Crookes
Melting point
577 K
Boiling point
1746 K
Density
11.85 g/cm3
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Lead

Category
post-transition metal
Appearance
metallic gray
Summary
Lead is a soft, malleable and heavy post-transition metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air.
Discovered by
Middle East
Melting point
600.61 K
Boiling point
2022 K
Density
11.34 g/cm3
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Bismuth

Category
post-transition metal
Appearance
lustrous silver
Summary
Bismuth, a pentavalent post-transition metal, chemically resembles arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores.
Discovered by
Claude François Geoffroy
Melting point
544.7 K
Boiling point
1837 K
Density
9.78 g/cm3
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Polonium

Category
post-transition metal
Appearance
silvery
Summary
A rare and highly radioactive element with no stable isotopes, polonium is chemically similar to bismuth and tellurium, and it occurs in uranium ores. Applications of polonium are few.
Discovered by
Pierre Curie
Melting point
527 K
Boiling point
1235 K
Density
9.196 g/cm3
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Astatine

Category
metalloid
Appearance
unknown, probably metallic
Summary
It occurs on Earth as the decay product of various heavier elements. All its isotopes are short-lived; the most stable is astatine-210, with a half-life of 8.1 hours.
Discovered by
Dale R. Corson
Melting point
575 K
Boiling point
610 K
Density
26.35 g/cm3
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Radon

Category
noble gas
Appearance
colorless gas, occasionally glows green or red in discharge tubes
Summary
It is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, occurring naturally as a decay product of radium. Its most stable isotope, 222Rn, has a half-life of 3.8 days.
Discovered by
Friedrich Ernst Dorn
Melting point
202 K
Boiling point
211.5 K
Density
9.73 g/cm3
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Francium

Category
alkali metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It used to be known as eka-caesium and actinium K. It is the second-least electronegative element, behind only caesium. Francium is a highly radioactive metal that decays into astatine, radium, and radon.
Discovered by
Marguerite Perey
Melting point
300 K
Boiling point
950 K
Density
1.87 g/cm3
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Radium

Category
alkaline earth metal
Appearance
silvery white metallic
Summary
It is the sixth element in group 2 of the periodic table, also known as the alkaline earth metals. Pure radium is almost colorless, but it readily combines with nitrogen (rather than oxygen) on exposure to air, forming a black surface layer of radium nitride (Ra3N2).
Discovered by
Pierre Curie
Melting point
1233 K
Boiling point
2010 K
Density
5.5 g/cm3
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Rutherfordium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is a synthetic element (an element that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature) and radioactive; the most stable known isotope, 267Rf, has a half-life of approximately 1.3 hours. In the periodic table of the elements, it is a d - block element and the second of the fourth - row transition elements.
Discovered by
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
Melting point
2400 K
Boiling point
5800 K
Density
23.2 g/cm3
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Dubnium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is named after the town of Dubna in Russia (north of Moscow), where it was first produced. It is a synthetic element (an element that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature) and radioactive; the most stable known isotope, dubnium-268, has a half-life of approximately 28 hours.
Discovered by
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
Melting point
None K
Boiling point
None K
Density
29.3 g/cm3
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Seaborgium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
Its most stable isotope 271Sg has a half-life of 1.9 minutes. A more recently discovered isotope 269Sg has a potentially slightly longer half-life (ca.
Discovered by
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Melting point
None K
Boiling point
None K
Density
35.0 g/cm3
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Bohrium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is named after Danish physicist Niels Bohr. It is a synthetic element (an element that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature) and radioactive; the most stable known isotope, 270Bh, has a half-life of approximately 61 seconds.
Discovered by
Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
Melting point
None K
Boiling point
None K
Density
37.1 g/cm3
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Hassium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is a synthetic element (an element that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature) and radioactive; the most stable known isotope, 269Hs, has a half-life of approximately 9.7 seconds, although an unconfirmed metastable state, 277mHs, may have a longer half-life of about 130 seconds. More than 100 atoms of hassium have been synthesized to date.
Discovered by
Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
Melting point
126 K
Boiling point
None K
Density
40.7 g/cm3
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Meitnerium

Category
unknown, probably transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element (an element not found in nature that can be created in a laboratory). The most stable known isotope, meitnerium-278, has a half-life of 7.6 seconds.
Discovered by
Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
Melting point
None K
Boiling point
None K
Density
37.4 g/cm3
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Darmstadtium

Category
unknown, probably transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element. The most stable known isotope, darmstadtium-281, has a half-life of approximately 10 seconds.
Discovered by
Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
Melting point
None K
Boiling point
None K
Density
34.8 g/cm3
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Roentgenium

Category
unknown, probably transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element (an element that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature); the most stable known isotope, roentgenium-282, has a half-life of 2.1 minutes. Roentgenium was first created in 1994 by the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near Darmstadt, Germany.
Discovered by
Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
Melting point
None K
Boiling point
None K
Density
28.7 g/cm3
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Copernicium

Category
transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element that can only be created in a laboratory. The most stable known isotope, copernicium-285, has a half-life of approximately 29 seconds, but it is possible that this copernicium isotope may have a nuclear isomer with a longer half-life, 8.9 min.
Discovered by
Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
Melting point
None K
Boiling point
3570 K
Density
23.7 g/cm3
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Nihonium

Category
unknown, probably transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It has a symbol Nh. It is a synthetic element (an element that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature) and is extremely radioactive; its most stable known isotope, nihonium-286, has a half-life of 20 seconds.
Discovered by
RIKEN
Melting point
700 K
Boiling point
1430 K
Density
16 g/cm3
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Flerovium

Category
post-transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element. The element is named after the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, where the element was discovered in 1998.
Discovered by
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
Melting point
340 K
Boiling point
420 K
Density
14 g/cm3
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Moscovium

Category
unknown, probably post transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is an extremely radioactive element; its most stable known isotope, moscovium-289, has a half-life of only 220 milliseconds. It is also known as eka-bismuth or simply element 115.
Discovered by
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
Melting point
670 K
Boiling point
1400 K
Density
13.5 g/cm3
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Livermorium

Category
unknown, probably post transition metal
Appearance
None
Summary
It is an extremely radioactive element that has only been created in the laboratory and has not been observed in nature. The element is named after the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the United States, which collaborated with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia to discover livermorium in 2000.
Discovered by
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
Melting point
637780 K
Boiling point
10351135 K
Density
12.9 g/cm3
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Tennessine

Category
unknown,probably metalloid
Appearance
None
Summary
Also known as eka-astatine or element 117, it is the second-heaviest known element and penultimate element of the 7th period of the periodic table. As of 2016, fifteen tennessine atoms have been observed:six when it was first synthesized in 2010, seven in 2012, and two in 2014.
Discovered by
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
Melting point
623823 K
Boiling point
883 K
Density
7.17 g/cm3
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Oganesson

Category
unknown, predicted to be noble gas
Appearance
None
Summary
It is also known as eka-radon or element 118, and on the periodic table of the elements it is a p-block element and the last one of the 7th period. Oganesson is currently the only synthetic member of group 18.
Discovered by
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
Melting point
None K
Boiling point
35030 K
Density
4.95 g/cm3
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Lanthanum

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
It tarnishes rapidly when exposed to air and is soft enough to be cut with a knife. It gave its name to the lanthanide series, a group of 15 similar elements between lanthanum and lutetium in the periodic table:it is also sometimes considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals.
Discovered by
Carl Gustaf Mosander
Melting point
1193 K
Boiling point
3737 K
Density
6.162 g/cm3
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Cerium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
It is a soft, silvery, ductile metal which easily oxidizes in air. Cerium was named after the dwarf planet Ceres (itself named after the Roman goddess of agriculture).
Discovered by
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Melting point
1068 K
Boiling point
3716 K
Density
6.77 g/cm3
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Praseodymium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
grayish white
Summary
Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal in the lanthanide group. It is valued for its magnetic, electrical, chemical, and optical properties.
Discovered by
Carl Auer von Welsbach
Melting point
1208 K
Boiling point
3403 K
Density
6.77 g/cm3
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Neodymium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
It is a soft silvery metal that tarnishes in air. Neodymium was discovered in 1885 by the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach.
Discovered by
Carl Auer von Welsbach
Melting point
1297 K
Boiling point
3347 K
Density
7.01 g/cm3
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Promethium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
metallic
Summary
All of its isotopes are radioactive; it is one of only two such elements that are followed in the periodic table by elements with stable forms, a distinction shared with technetium. Chemically, promethium is a lanthanide, which forms salts when combined with other elements.
Discovered by
Chien Shiung Wu
Melting point
1315 K
Boiling point
3273 K
Density
7.26 g/cm3
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Samarium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
It is a moderately hard silvery metal that readily oxidizes in air. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, samarium usually assumes the oxidation state +3.
Discovered by
Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Melting point
1345 K
Boiling point
2173 K
Density
7.52 g/cm3
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Europium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
None
Summary
It was isolated in 1901 and is named after the continent of Europe. It is a moderately hard, silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water.
Discovered by
Eugène-Anatole Demarçay
Melting point
1099 K
Boiling point
1802 K
Density
5.264 g/cm3
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Gadolinium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
It is a silvery-white, malleable and ductile rare-earth metal. It is found in nature only in combined (salt) form.
Discovered by
Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Melting point
1585 K
Boiling point
3273 K
Density
7.9 g/cm3
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Terbium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
It is a silvery-white rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile and soft enough to be cut with a knife. Terbium is never found in nature as a free element, but it is contained in many minerals, including cerite, gadolinite, monazite, xenotime and euxenite.
Discovered by
Carl Gustaf Mosander
Melting point
1629 K
Boiling point
3396 K
Density
8.23 g/cm3
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Dysprosium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
It is a rare earth element with a metallic silver luster. Dysprosium is never found in nature as a free element, though it is found in various minerals, such as xenotime.
Discovered by
Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Melting point
1680 K
Boiling point
2840 K
Density
8.54 g/cm3
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Holmium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
Part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a rare earth element. Holmium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Theodor Cleve.
Discovered by
Marc Delafontaine
Melting point
1734 K
Boiling point
2873 K
Density
8.79 g/cm3
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Erbium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
A silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements on Earth. As such, it is a rare earth element which is associated with several other rare elements in the mineral gadolinite from Ytterby in Sweden, where yttrium, ytterbium, and terbium were discovered.
Discovered by
Carl Gustaf Mosander
Melting point
1802 K
Boiling point
3141 K
Density
9.066 g/cm3
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Thulium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
silvery gray
Summary
It is the thirteenth and antepenultimate (third-last) element in the lanthanide series. Like the other lanthanides, the most common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides and other compounds.
Discovered by
Per Teodor Cleve
Melting point
1818 K
Boiling point
2223 K
Density
9.32 g/cm3
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Ytterbium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
None
Summary
It is the fourteenth and penultimate element in the lanthanide series, which is the basis of the relative stability of its +2 oxidation state. However, like the other lanthanides, its most common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides and other compounds.
Discovered by
Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Melting point
1097 K
Boiling point
1469 K
Density
6.9 g/cm3
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Lutetium

Category
lanthanide
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
It is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry, but not in moist air. It is considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals and the last element in the lanthanide series, and is traditionally counted among the rare earths.
Discovered by
Georges Urbain
Melting point
1925 K
Boiling point
3675 K
Density
9.841 g/cm3
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Actinium

Category
actinide
Appearance
None
Summary
It was the first non-primordial radioactive element to be isolated. Polonium, radium and radon were observed before actinium, but they were not isolated until 1902.
Discovered by
Friedrich Oskar Giesel
Melting point
1500 K
Boiling point
3500300 K
Density
10 g/cm3
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Thorium

Category
actinide
Appearance
silvery, often with black tarnish
Summary
A radioactive actinide metal, thorium is one of only two significantly radioactive elements that still occur naturally in large quantities as a primordial element (the other being uranium). It was discovered in 1828 by the Norwegian Reverend and amateur mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder.
Discovered by
Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Melting point
2023 K
Boiling point
5061 K
Density
11.724 g/cm3
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Protactinium

Category
actinide
Appearance
bright, silvery metallic luster
Summary
It is a dense, silvery-gray metal which readily reacts with oxygen, water vapor and inorganic acids. It forms various chemical compounds where protactinium is usually present in the oxidation state +5, but can also assume +4 and even +2 or +3 states.
Discovered by
William Crookes
Melting point
1841 K
Boiling point
4300 K
Density
15.37 g/cm3
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Uranium

Category
actinide
Appearance
None
Summary
It is a silvery-white metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons.
Discovered by
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Melting point
1405.3 K
Boiling point
4404 K
Density
19.1 g/cm3
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Neptunium

Category
actinide
Appearance
silvery metallic
Summary
A radioactive actinide metal, neptunium is the first transuranic element. Its position in the periodic table just after uranium, named after the planet Uranus, led to it being named after Neptune, the next planet beyond Uranus.
Discovered by
Edwin McMillan
Melting point
9123 K
Boiling point
4447 K
Density
20.45 g/cm3
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Plutonium

Category
actinide
Appearance
silvery white, tarnishing to dark gray in air
Summary
It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation states.
Discovered by
Glenn T. Seaborg
Melting point
912.5 K
Boiling point
3505 K
Density
19.816 g/cm3
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Americium

Category
actinide
Appearance
silvery white
Summary
This member of the actinide series is located in the periodic table under the lanthanide element europium, and thus by analogy was named after the Americas. Americium was first produced in 1944 by the group of Glenn T.Seaborg from Berkeley, California, at the metallurgical laboratory of University of Chicago.
Discovered by
Glenn T. Seaborg
Melting point
1449 K
Boiling point
2880 K
Density
12 g/cm3
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Curium

Category
actinide
Appearance
silvery metallic, glows purple in the dark
Summary
This element of the actinide series was named after Marie and Pierre Curie – both were known for their research on radioactivity. Curium was first intentionally produced and identified in July 1944 by the group of Glenn T. Seaborg at the University of California, Berkeley.
Discovered by
Glenn T. Seaborg
Melting point
1613 K
Boiling point
3383 K
Density
13.51 g/cm3
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Berkelium

Category
actinide
Appearance
silvery
Summary
It is a member of the actinide and transuranium element series. It is named after the city of Berkeley, California, the location of the University of California Radiation Laboratory where it was discovered in December 1949.
Discovered by
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Melting point
1259 K
Boiling point
2900 K
Density
14.78 g/cm3
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Californium

Category
actinide
Appearance
silvery
Summary
The element was first made in 1950 at the University of California Radiation Laboratory in Berkeley, by bombarding curium with alpha particles (helium-4 ions). It is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be synthesized, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the unaided eye (after einsteinium).
Discovered by
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Melting point
1173 K
Boiling point
1743 K
Density
15.1 g/cm3
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Einsteinium

Category
actinide
Appearance
silver-colored
Summary
It is the seventh transuranic element, and an actinide. Einsteinium was discovered as a component of the debris of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952, and named after Albert Einstein.
Discovered by
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Melting point
1133 K
Boiling point
1269 K
Density
8.84 g/cm3
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Fermium

Category
actinide
Appearance
None
Summary
It is a member of the actinide series. It is the heaviest element that can be formed by neutron bombardment of lighter elements, and hence the last element that can be prepared in macroscopic quantities, although pure fermium metal has not yet been prepared.
Discovered by
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Melting point
1800 K
Boiling point
None K
Density
None g/cm3
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Mendelevium

Category
actinide
Appearance
None
Summary
A metallic radioactive transuranic element in the actinide series, it is the first element that currently cannot be produced in macroscopic quantities through neutron bombardment of lighter elements. It is the antepenultimate actinide and the ninth transuranic element.
Discovered by
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Melting point
1100 K
Boiling point
None K
Density
None g/cm3
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Nobelium

Category
actinide
Appearance
None
Summary
It is named in honor of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite and benefactor of science. A radioactive metal, it is the tenth transuranic element and is the penultimate member of the actinide series.
Discovered by
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
Melting point
1100 K
Boiling point
None K
Density
None g/cm3
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Lawrencium

Category
actinide
Appearance
None
Summary
It is named in honor of Ernest Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron, a device that was used to discover many artificial radioactive elements. A radioactive metal, lawrencium is the eleventh transuranic element and is also the final member of the actinide series.
Discovered by
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Melting point
1900 K
Boiling point
None K
Density
None g/cm3
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